Postgraduate Course

“Ninety years of cephalometrics. Ready for something new?"

Date: Tuesday 31 May 2022
Time: 8:30 – 15:15
Location: Carob Mill Complex
Speaker: Demetrios Halazonetis (Greece)

This course will focus on the basic principles and limitations of conventional cephalometrics and introduce alternative approaches to the measurement and study of the shape of the craniofacial complex. Topics include:

Cephalometrics and geometry.
Cephalometric measurements and conflicting interpretations.
Cephalometric landmarks: definitions, error of identification, types of landmarks, validity, accuracy and reporting.
Geometric morphometrics: Procrustes alignment, procrustes distance, shape variability, the concept of shape space, principal component analysis.
Serial cephalograms – Growth and treatment.
Superimposition methods and growth rotation.
Correlations in cephalometrics: geometrical correlations and mathematical coupling.
CBCT in Orthodontics: Resolution, noise, dosage, artifacts.

Aims, Objectives & Learning Outcomes

Aims: The aim of this course is to provide an overview of the limitations of conventional cephalometrics and introduce new methods for shape assessment of the craniofacial complex.

Objectives: Participants will be able to discuss the limitations of conventional cephalometrics and describe alternative quantitative methods for measuring and evaluating shape.

Learning outcomes: Participants will be able to:

• Use basic geometric relations to confirm cephalometric measurements.
• List types of cephalometric landmarks and describe their limitations.
• Describe the patterns and magnitude of error in landmark identification.
• Discuss reasons for apparent conflicting findings from cephalometric analyses.
• Describe the best-fit Procrustes superimposition.
• Explain the concepts of shape space and principal component analysis.
• Describe methods of cephalometric superimposition and how they affect interpretation.
• Explain how correlations among measurements can arise from purely geometrical relations.
• Describe factors that limit resolution and quality of CBCT imaging.